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              留學人力資源Essay作業要求:Concerns Regarding Organisational Commitment to Training

              論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-04-26 09:44:56 來源:www.eanhe.com 作者:留學作業網

              本文是人力資源專業的Essay范例,題目是“Concerns Regarding Organisational Commitment to Training(關于組織對培訓的承諾的關注)”,培訓是當前和未來人力資源管理的重要組成部分。然而,為什么在聯合王國的情況下,有這么多關于組織承諾的問題?這些擔憂有根據嗎?

              Training is a key component of the present and future of HRM. However, why in the case of the United Kingdom are there so many concerns with this issue regarding organisational commitment to it? Are those concerns valid?

              Britain seems to have a poor record concerning its investment in training which has resulted in today’s skills gap problem. The British government’s goal is to bridge this gap by raising the bar on the workforce development. More precisely it envisages that promotion of workforce learning will enhance its competitiveness and will help her create an economy that will make her world leader. It has resorted to initiatives and strategies aiming at solving the so-called “training problem but obtaining the high-added value route has proved to be challenging and difficult.

              英國在培訓投資方面的記錄似乎不佳,這導致了今天的技能缺口問題。英國政府的目標是通過提高勞動力發展的門檻來彌補這一差距。更準確地說,它設想促進勞動力學習將增強其競爭力,并將幫助她創建一個將使她成為世界領袖的經濟。該公司采取了旨在解決所謂的“培訓問題”的舉措和戰略,但事實證明,獲得高附加值路線具有挑戰性和難度。

               

              經濟學Essay如何寫

              This paper attempts to present several dimensions of this training problem in the UK. It also tries to assess the severity of the skills gap as well as its chances of being resolved. It shall start by presenting some facts that have triggered a change in Britain’s attitude concerning the promotion of learning and the investment in training. After that it shall present the initiatives and strategies launched by the British government in its effort to improve the Vocational Education and Training framework as a means of encouraging people to assume their own learning and development and as a means of attracting employers’ interest in the country’s effort to foster its economy through human resource development. After examining a certain number of training policies and institutions facilitating them, this essay shall endeavour to point out potential flaws and weaknesses of the system. Then we will study some other aspects of the so-called “training problem” in the UK. One of these aspects is employers’ attitudes which also seem to play their own negative part in Britain’s desire to become a high skills society. We will also have a look at the “training apartheid” phenomenon and the inequality of training provisions in the British workplaces. Finally this paper will discuss the emergence of informal training practices, the importance of soft skills and the difficulties in assessing both the former and the latter.

              Britain is deemed to be trapped in a low-skills equilibrium (Finegolf and Sosckice 1988), meaning that its firms have low-skilled labour force and they produce inexpensive products and services to the detriment of quality. This is the strategy of differentiation that UK firms have been pursuing in their efforts for competitive advantage. That is also the reason why they insist on refusing to invest in the training of their workforce and on employing low-qualified workers (Marchingoton and Wilkinson 2008). This under-investment on workforce learning on the part of employers as well as the government’s failure to properly invest in the Vocational Education and Training (VET) throughout the years has resulted in the so-called “training problem” which is inextricably linked to the skill shortages Britain has been experiencing. The breath of the problem is mirrored in reports and surveys conducted by governmental bodies. What is particularly worrying are the international comparisons which testify that due to this problem, the UK economy has been left behind by its international competitors. (Marchington and Wilkinson 2008)

              英國被認為陷入了低技能均衡(Finegolf和Sosckice 1988),這意味著它的公司擁有低技能的勞動力,他們生產廉價的產品和服務,損害質量。這就是英國企業為謀求競爭優勢所奉行的差異化戰略。這也是為什么他們堅持拒絕投資培訓他們的勞動力和雇用低素質的工人的原因(Marchingoton和Wilkinson 2008)。雇主對勞動力學習的投資不足,以及政府多年來未能對職業教育和培訓(VET)進行適當投資,導致了所謂的“培訓問題”,這與英國一直面臨的技能短缺密不可分。政府機構的報告和調查反映了這個問題的嚴重性。尤其令人擔憂的是,國際比較證明,由于這個問題,英國經濟已經落后于其國際競爭對手。(馬爾金頓和威爾金森2008)

              That is the reason why Britain has decided to rely of Human Resource Development in order to solve its problems and obtain the competitive edge against its rivals. Stuart(2007) cited in Stuart and Cooney (2008) explains that nowadays systems of training and skills are considered to impact positively on firms’ performance and ultimately on national economies. Therefore countries utilise them as weapons to improve their competitive position and to face challenges posed by the globalisation, technological change and the rise of the so-called knowledge economy.

              Britain has realised that in order to bridge its skill gaps and to move towards the creation of a high skills economy it has to maximise the skills and knowledge of its people. This dimension of Human Resource Management, that is to say training, and more broadly, learning and development has therefore drawn Britain’s attention as it is said to be the key that will offer the country the competitive edge in the global economy. As a result the government has decided to undertake training initiatives aiming at fostering the learning and development of its workforce. Therefore the state has assumed a more interventionist role in order to improve the VET (Vocational Education and Training) framework. It has designed many strategies as well as established many institutions whose goal is to facilitate Britain’s trajectory towards the creation of a knowledge economy. The creation of this type of economy is not only desired by Britain but it is also a legal request stemming from the European Union for its members. The European Union’s wish to transform into the most competitive, knowledge-based economy in the world by 2010 is reflected on the “Lisbon Goals”. In other words Britain will not only be struggling in order to tackle its national skills deficiencies but it will be doing so in order attain the conditions set by the “ Lisbon Goals “ and its mutual targets with the European Union (Beardwell and Claydon 2007).

              Beardwell and Claydon (2007) mention that there is a proliferation of government-driven initiatives and they attempt to itemise a few. It has introduced a number of vocational qualifications such as the National Vocational Qualifications (NVQ) which have several levels and which depict the skills and knowledge which are indispensable for an employee wishing to exercise a specific job. Moreover, there are Apprenticeships which provide work-based training and which permit to the trainee to pursue a qualification at the same time.

              It has set up the Learning and Skills Councils whose duty is the implementation and finance of educative and training programmes (with the exception of higher education) for sixteen year olds and above. It has also established the Sector Skills Development Councils whose primary role is to deal with skill shortages and to act as voice mechanisms which give employers the opportunity to express themselves and to address the skills and productivity problems of their own businesses (Beardwell and Claydon 2007). Additionally, it has launched the Investors in People Standard which according to Hoque (2008) provides a benchmark for training practices and which prompts organisations to design and put into place training practices addressing their skills gaps. If they manage to meet the Standard’s criteria they are granted the Investors in People award. However the significance of the whole process lies in the fact that it is meant to increase organisational effectiveness and to entail profits.

              它設立了學習和技能委員會,其職責是為16歲及以上的學生實施教育和培訓方案(高等教育除外)并提供資金。它還設立了部門技能發展委員會,其主要作用是解決技能短缺問題,并作為發聲機制,使雇主有機會表達自己的意見,并解決自己企業的技能和生產力問題(Beardwell和Claydon, 2007年)。此外,它還推出了“人力投資者標準”(Investors in People Standard),根據Hoque(2008)的說法,該標準為培訓實踐提供了一個基準,并促使組織設計并實施培訓實踐,以解決他們的技能差距。如果他們能夠達到標準的標準,他們將被授予投資者獎。然而,整個過程的意義在于,它意味著提高組織的有效性和帶來利潤。

              Finally Britain has followed the example of the dual German VET system which involves many stakeholders in its national learning strategies, including the trades unions. The government has passed legislation leading to the formation of Union Learning Representatives whose main responsibilities is to analyse training needs of the union members, to provide information and to advice on training, to arrange training practices, to promote the value of training and to consult the employer concerning these activities (Hoque and Bacon 2008).

              Despite the efforts of the government to maximise the skills and knowledge of its people by reforming the VET system, the VET framework is characterised by many weaknesses. According to Keep (1999) the most important one is that the government continues relying on a voluntaristic approach which allows employers to choose not to engage in learning policies and investment on training if they do not want to. On the contrary other European countries utilise coercive measures backed by legislation. He considers the dearth of governmental mechanisms and of regulation able to enforce the provision of training as problematic because this means that each employer follows their own strategies dealing with their own needs and do not partake to the country’s aims for the creation of a knowledge workforce. Another flaw is that the VET is so complicated and inconsistent that employers tend to be unaware of the training programmes available (Harrison 2009).

              盡管政府努力通過改革VET體系來最大化其員工的技能和知識,但VET框架仍存在許多弱點。根據Keep(1999),最重要的一點是,政府繼續依靠一種自愿的方法,允許雇主選擇不參與學習政策和培訓投資,如果他們不想。相反,其他歐洲國家采取的是由立法支持的強制性措施。他認為缺乏能夠強制提供培訓的政府機制和監管是有問題的,因為這意味著每個雇主都遵循自己的策略來滿足自己的需求,而不參與國家創造知識型勞動力的目標。另一個缺點是VET是如此復雜和不一致,雇主往往不知道可用的培訓計劃(Harrison 2009)。

              The initiatives launched by the government are also deemed to suffer from limitations. Grugulis (2003) makes a strong case against the National Vocational Qualifications and questions whether they are accurate certification depicting indeed the abilities of their holders to practice an occupation. She suggests that their level is lower than the level of the qualifications they replaced and that they do not offer financial returns to their holders.

              Marchington and Wilkinson (2008) explain that Apprenticeships have been also heavily criticised on the grounds of low completion rates, bureaucracy and lack of flexibility. Nonetheless, the main argument against them is that they do not respond to employers’ needs. As a solution, in 2007 the government took the decision to authorise the accreditation of in-house training schemes of major companies in order for the vocational qualification system to fit better employer needs and in order for employers to be able to run their own accredited training schemes (Harrison 2009). A case in point might be Tesco which has created its own internal training scheme that has been accredited by the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority and that has become eligible for public funding (Marchington and Wilkinson 2008). Another example is McDonald’s which became one the first employer s who had their in-house training schemes accredited by the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority in January 2008 and whose target was to form loyal and committed staff able to provide high quality service. The course was equivalent to an A-levels (Brockett 2008).

              Governmental actions such as the accreditation of the firms’ in-house training raise two issues: The first problem is the possibility that the whole vocational qualification system will lose its credibility (Harrison 2009: 84). Moreover, the accreditation of in-house training demonstrates that the government endeavours to satisfy employers. Thereby the question raised is whether it is correct for the government to carry on financing training tailored to employer needs, such as in-house training (Marchington and Wilkinson 2008). The authors argue that these training schemes which are designed by companies themselves aim at developing skills relevant to their needs, thus excluding education and other skills emphasised by the government. In the end this runs counter to the government’s aims.

              政府的行動,如公司內部培訓的認證,提出了兩個問題:第一個問題是整個職業資格體系將失去信譽的可能性(Harrison 2009: 84)。此外,內部培訓的認證表明,政府努力滿足雇主。由此提出的問題是政府是否應該進行適合雇主需要的融資培訓,如內部培訓(Marchington and Wilkinson 2008)。作者認為,這些培訓計劃是由公司自己設計的,目的是發展與他們的需求相關的技能,從而排除了政府強調的教育和其他技能。最終,這與政府的目標背道而馳。

              Finally, Britain being a liberal market economy, there is a bias against vocational qualifications in comparison to academic qualifications. Academic qualifications are deemed to be superior whereas vocational training systems as Bosch and Charest (2008) argue suffer from poor reputation and low social status in liberal market economies. Notwithstanding the existence of vocational routes the UK carries on overestimating tertiary education. Marchington and Wilkisnon(2008) claim that this has as subsequent repercussion the fact that many young people opt for the academic pathway but many of them drop out before qualifying and end up in low low-skill and poorly paid jobs.

              Other impediments to Britain’s struggle to bridge the skills gap come from the employer side. From the employers’ perspective there seems to be an unwillingness to cooperate with the government in their endeavour to upgrade the skills of the workforce (Harrison 2009). This reluctance to invest in training is due to several reasons. Harrison (2009:30-31) attempts to list a few such as the fear of poaching, the fear of the unpredictable market conditions as well as the fact that the benefits of the investment in training are difficult to be foreseen as they come in the long term. Loyds (2002) cited in Marchington and Wilkinson (2008) mentions other reasons such as the lack of time and the lack of information on the economic benefits of training. Finally, Beardwell (2007) explains that employers hold an unfavourable position towards employee learning and they seem reluctant to invest in the training of their workforce on other grounds: the likelihood that employees will stop being committed to their employer because their skills will be desired by other employers and the likelihood that employees will be poorly trained.

              A research study conducted by Matlay (1999) in 2000 businesses, among which the overwhelming majority were micro-, small- and medium sized companies demonstrated the “ training paradox “ in the small business sector. According to this paradox even though the vast majority of small businesses acknowledge the importance of and adopt a positive attitudes towards training practices, most of them had failed to provide them over a period of 12 months before the interviews. They respondent also recognised some direct reasons such as market positioning, prevailing economic conditions and availability of relevant firm-specific training as well as indirect reasons such as costs of training, time constraints, lack of in-house trainers, lack of motivation and interest. The owners/managers of these firms also claimed that some training initiatives in the UK lacked the necessary focus, coherence and clarity and suggested that the government should encourage the training industry, through subsidies, to offer cost-effective training solutions tailored particularly for the need of SMEs.

              Matlay(1999)對2000年的企業進行了一項研究,其中絕大多數是微型、中小企業,證明了小企業部門的“培訓悖論”。根據這一悖論,盡管絕大多數小企業承認培訓實踐的重要性,并采取積極的態度,但大多數企業在面試前的12個月都沒有提供培訓實踐。受訪者還認識到一些直接原因,如市場定位、現行經濟條件和相關公司特定培訓的可獲得性,以及一些間接原因,如培訓成本、時間限制、缺乏內部培訓人員、缺乏動力和興趣。這些公司的所有者/管理者還聲稱,英國的一些培訓舉措缺乏必要的重點、連貫性和清晰度,并建議政府應通過補貼鼓勵培訓行業提供特別針對中小企業需要的具有成本效益的培訓解決方案。

              Hoque (2008) deals with another aspect of the training problem in Britain which is the inequality of training provisions in the British workplaces, a problem labelled “training apartheid” . According to this problem there are disadvantaged employee groups which suffer discrimination regarding access to training. Almeida-Santos and Mumford (2005) cited in Hoque (2008) argue that this discrimination takes place against women as well as members of ethnic minorities. Hoque (2008) also cites Arulampalam and Booth (1998) who dealt with reduced training provided to temporary/fixed-term and part-time employees and Addison and Belfield (2004) who included older employees to these disadvantaged groups. Furthermore Harrison (2007: 269) added disable people to this long list. Moreover, Westwood (2004) cited in Hoque(2008) claims that firms invest more in the training of their professionals and already qualified employees rather than the training of their low-skilled employees.

              人力資源Essay范例

              The “training apartheid “ is an issue which undermines Britain’s attempt to tackle its skills gap problem which remains unsolved despite the reform of the NVET institutions and the launch of strategic initiatives by the government aiming at the upskilling of the workforce. Hoque (2008) offers an example which might illustrate the failure of the Investors in People (IiP) Standard to tackle this phenomenon. After the launch of its revised version in 2000 the Standard was meant to guarantee equal access to training to all employee groups. Nevertheless his study which was based on the analysis of data collected from the 2004 Workplace Employment Relations Survey indicated that the Standard did not contribute to the resolution of the problem but to make matters worse it also demonstrated that inequality of training opportunities was more common in IiP workplaces than in non-Iip workplaces.

              “培訓種族隔離”問題削弱了英國試圖解決技能缺口問題的努力。盡管英國國家職業教育學院(NVET)進行了改革,政府也推出了旨在提高勞動力技能的戰略舉措,但技能缺口問題仍未得到解決。Hoque(2008)提供了一個例子,可能說明了投資者(IiP)標準在解決這一現象方面的失敗。2000年修訂后的標準旨在保證所有員工群體都有平等的培訓機會。然而他的研究分析的基礎上從2004年職場就業關系調查收集的數據表明,標準沒有貢獻的解決問題,但更糟糕的是它還證明不等式的培訓機會比non-Iip IiP工作場所中更為普遍工作場所。

              There is also the issue of the assessment and evaluation of training provision in today’s economies, which has become very difficult as firms tend to resort to informal training in order to cover their training needs. Beardwell (2007:289) explains that many companies might adopt learning strategies which are not systematic or planned. Nowadays firms have in their disposition several types of training which are usually informal. A case in point might be e-learning which enjoys wide popularity because it is flexible and easily accessible as it allows employees to learn with the help of technological tools. Moreover mentoring can also be informal and that takes place when an inexperienced employee is guided and advised on learning and development issues by an older and more experienced colleague. Informal learning is also linked to tacit knowledge. Myers and Davids (1992) define the notion of tacit skills as skills which are obtained through experience rather than training and which are embedded in the context where they are acquired. Both informal and tacit knowledge cannot be gauged which implies that they cannot be certified by qualifications. Apart from the technical and tacit skills there is also the need for the development of soft skills which is also of a great importance. Keep (2006) takes the service sector as an example where the development of generic and interpersonal skills and of some attitudes such as self-discipline, loyalty and punctuality are of vital importance. Nevertheless they cannot be measured which means they cannot be certified. However they continue to constitute skills even though they cannot be represented as qualifications. Thus, Marchington and Wilkinson(2008) argue that there is no appropriate proxy for measuring skills because they are not as qualifications. Most importantly Britain’s reliance on international comparisons in order to assess its skill shortages is highly debatable because if informal training cannot be measured and if tacit and soft skills cannot be assessed either there is no way of reaching accurate conclusions concerning which country has the most skilled labour force and thereby the most competitive economy (Keep 2006).

              A case study is provided by Abbott (1994) whose study in small service sector firms demonstrated that people who work in the services are required to possess friendly and lively personalities and other personal attributes and generic skills which are indispensable for their work. His study also demonstrated that vast majority of small service sector firms provide informal training which is often considered to be of inferior level of training in comparison to formal training. Sometimes it is not classified as “training” even by employers themselves. According to him informal training is linked to tacit skills because they are usually learned informally and tacit skills are associated to some forms of soft skills such as inter-personal skills and cooperativeness. Soft skills and tacit skills cannot be measured but this does not underestimate their importance for people who work in the sector.

              This paper has reviewed the major aspects concerning the “training problem” in the UK. It has managed to study the setting where it takes place and to understand the factors that have prompted the UK to acknowledge the problem. International comparisons clearly indicate that the UK workforce is poorly educated and trained. This also accounts for the low skill equilibrium in which the UK has remained trapped. The solution for the economic strength of the nation is the creation of a learning society. Britain has embraced the strategic role of human resource development and its potential to offer the country the competitive advantage. The government’s goal of upgrading the skills of its workforce depends on the VET framework which has gone through changes. Nevertheless it is still characterised by significant weaknesses.

              本文回顧了英國“培訓問題”的主要方面。它成功地研究了事件發生的背景,并理解了促使英國承認這一問題的因素。國際比較清楚地表明,英國勞動力受教育和培訓程度較低。這也解釋了英國仍處于低技能均衡狀態的原因。解決這個國家經濟實力的辦法是建立一個學習型社會。英國已經接受了人力資源開發的戰略角色及其為國家提供競爭優勢的潛力。政府提升員工技能的目標依賴于已經改變的VET框架。然而,它仍有顯著的弱點。

              The most important mistake is that even though the government has assumed a more interventionist role than in the past it continues to make mistakes such as its insistence on relying on voluntarism which prevents it from coming into conflict with employers. The severity of this approach lies in the fact that the government has ended up conceding power to the hands of employers. With this sort of power employers will have the opportunity to seek strategies and aims covering their needs and therefore diverging from those adopted by the government. This and many other unsolved issues illustrate that the UK has still a long way to go before becoming a high skills society.

              最重要的錯誤是,盡管政府承擔了比過去更強的干預角色,但它仍在犯錯誤,比如堅持依靠自愿原則,從而避免與雇主發生沖突。這種做法的嚴峻性在于,政府最終將權力拱手讓給了雇主。有了這種權力,雇主將有機會尋求策略和目標,以滿足他們的需求,從而偏離政府采用的那些。這一點以及其他許多未解決的問題表明,英國要成為一個高技能社會還有很長的路要走。

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