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              留學生課程作業SWOT分析寫作參考:Daimler Chrysler Merger + SWOT Analysis

              論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-08-12 10:52:33 來源:www.eanhe.com 作者:留學作業網

              留學生課程作業SWOT分析寫作參考-戴姆勒-克萊斯勒合并+SWOT分析。本文是一篇留學生SWOT Analysis寫作范文,主要內容是講述長期以來,并購一直是企業發展的一種既定形式,旨在提高企業在一系列領域的實力。是一篇符合國外大學課程作業格式要求的范文。

              戴姆勒(Daimler)和克萊斯勒(Chrysler)合并背后的邏輯顯而易見,紐鮑爾(Neubauer)等人詳細闡述了這將有可能使該公司成為國際汽車巨頭,而不僅僅是歐洲大陸的汽車巨頭。此外,兩家公司都認為,從長遠來看,它們各自規模太小,無法在全球范圍內發起挑戰??巳R斯勒同意合并,并相信合并將帶來更大的繁榮。1998年,戴姆勒斥資380億美元以橫向合并的方式收購了克萊斯勒。留學生課程作業提出這種強大合并的優勢是巨大的,Gaughan認為合并的主要好處是協同效應、價值創造和競爭優勢。迪士尼和皮克斯的合并象征著這些好處,巴恩斯表示,自2006年以來,迪士尼的股票在2008年上漲了28%,收入流繼續大幅增長。這兩家公司采取了統一的方法,利用他們的專業知識來提高產品質量。1988年,戴姆勒在全球排名第17位,克萊斯勒在全球排名第25位,合并無疑將提升合并后公司的價值,同時也將利用規模經濟,使公司實現利潤最大化,增加股票價值。整體的總和預計將大于兩部分。該合并被稱為“平等合并”,兩家公司的專業知識將結合在一起,打造出高質量的適銷對路產品。下面是留學生課程作業SWOT分析寫作范文的全部內容,供參考。

              留學生課程作業SWOT分析寫作參考

              Mergers and acquisitions have long been an established form of corporate development to increase the strength of a business in an array of areas. The logic behind the Daimler and Chrysler merger was obvious, with Neubauer et al (2000) elaborating that it would potentially make the company an automobile powerhouse internationally and not just in mainland Europe. Furthermore, both companies felt that they were individually too small to challenge on a global scale in the long term. Chrysler were in agreement and believed the merger would generate enhanced prosperity. In 1998 Daimler paid $38 billion to takeover Chrysler in a horizontal merger (The Economist, 2000). The advantages of such a formidable merger are massive, with Gaughan (2007) believing that the primary benefits of a merger are synergy, value creation and competitive advantage. The merger of Disney and Pixar has symbolised these benefits with Barnes (2008) indicating that since 2006 Disney’s stock rose by 28% in 2008 and revenue streams have continued to increase substantially. The two firm’s adopted a united approach, utilizing their expertise to increase the quality of their products. With Daimler ranked 17th and Chrysler 25th globally in 1988, the amalgamation would undoubtedly boost the value of the combined company, whilst also exploiting economies of scale which would allow the company to maximise profits, increasing share value. The sum of the whole was anticipated to be greater than the two parts. The merger was claimed to be a ‘merger of equals’ where the expertise and knowledge of the two companies would be combined to forge high quality marketable products.

              In reality this was not the case with Daimler thrusting their authority over Chrysler by installing German executives into senior positions within Chrysler. The scale of the failure of the DaimlerChrysler merger was illustrated when Daimler sold Chrysler to Cerberus for $7.8 billion in 2007, an astounding loss on what they had invested for Chrysler. Jensen and Ruback (1983. P.43) stated that “on average target shares increase in price from 16% to 30% around the date of the tender offer”. This does offer reasoning for why Daimler incurred such a loss. However, the issues are much more complex than this simple explanation. Jensen and Ruback (1983) believed such direct action was critical for corporate control. Sudarsanam and Mahate’s (2006) research would support this claim as they identified that hostile takeovers in nature tended to produce higher returns than a friendly takeover. From this aspect such a strong action was recommendable to achieve control. Johnson and Scholes (2000) believed a SWOT analysis was an effective method isolating the opportunities gained from a merger. Indeed such an analysis portrayed that the merger would allow massive market power growth, value creation and competitive advantage. A SWOT analysis in regards to the merger has been created below to illustrate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the merger.
              事實上,戴姆勒通過在克萊斯勒內部安排德國高管擔任高級職位,將其權力強加給了克萊斯勒,但情況并非如此。2007年,戴姆勒以78億美元將克萊斯勒出售給Cerberus,說明了戴姆勒-克萊斯勒合并失敗的規模,這是他們對克萊斯勒投資的巨大損失。Jensen和Ruback指出,“平均而言,目標股票的價格在要約收購之日左右從16%上漲到30%”。這確實為戴姆勒遭受如此損失提供了理由。然而,這些問題比這個簡單的解釋要復雜得多。Jensen和Ruback認為,這種直接行動對公司控制至關重要。Sudarsanam和Mahate的研究將支持這一說法,因為他們發現,實質上敵意收購往往比友好收購產生更高的回報。從這一方面來看,建議采取如此有力的行動來實現控制。Johnson和Scholes認為SWOT分析是一種有效的方法,可以隔離從合并中獲得的機會。事實上,這樣的分析表明,合并將帶來巨大的市場力量增長、價值創造和競爭優勢。下文對合并進行了SWOT分析,以說明合并的優勢、劣勢、機會和威脅。
              Daimler and Chrysler Merger SWOT Analysis 戴姆勒和克萊斯勒合并的SWOT分析
              Strengths 優勢
              Savings through economies of scale 通過規模經濟節約
              Large corporate brands 大型企業品牌
              Increased capital strength 增加資本實力
              Competitive advantage through size 通過規模獲得競爭優勢
              Weaknesses 劣勢
              Difficult to control and direct such a large organisation 難以控制和指揮如此龐大的組織
              Two diverse cultures (European & American) to infuse 要注入兩種不同的文化(歐洲和美國)
              Different customer bases 不同的客戶群
              Opportunities 機會
              Entry into new markets (Particularly Asia) and market expansion 進入新市場(尤其是亞洲)和市場擴張
              Innovation through combined expertise 通過綜合專業知識進行創新
              Potential to become a dominant market leader 成為主導市場領導者的潛力
              Threats 風險
              Such a large merger can be high risk to the existence of both companies 如此大規模的合并可能給兩家公司的存在帶來高風險
              Newly formed DaimlerChrysler lacks any corporate identity, customers may not align with it 新成立的戴姆勒-克萊斯勒缺乏任何企業身份,客戶可能不會認同
              Cultural Differences 文化差異
              Matsumoto (1996, p.16) defined culture by stating that “culture is the set of attitudes, values, beliefs and behaviours shared by a group of people, but different for each individual, communicated from one generation to the next”. In contrast to the thought of Jensen and Ruback (1983) the ousting of management violated the long established culture within Chrysler, which in turn was the catalyst for the cataclysmic failure that was the DaimlerChrysler merger (Neubauer et al, 2000). Employees resisted the European style which caused great conflict and tension between the two organisations. Incidentally, this compromised the communication process, resulting in poor products and disappointing sales in relation to the size of the merger. Pritchett (1997, p.7) identified “a failure rate of 61% in acquisition programs, with failure defined as not earning a significant return”. This was very much the case for DaimlerChrysler, with the BBC (2000) reporting a record low share price of $42.79 from a high of $108 in 2000 for the company. Just two years into the merger performance was plummeting. The BBC (2000) also revealed that in contrast the ‘merger of equals’ the Daimler chairman, Jurgen Schrempp actually viewed Chrysler as a division of Daimler and not as a partnership. As eluded to above, Schrempp directed Chrysler as a European company by replacing Jim Holden, the Chrysler president with Dieter Zetsche. Forcing this European style programme of change was greatly contested and fuelled disengagement from staff at Chrysler. Through Schein’s (2010) theory of ‘The Organisational Iceberg’ it is clear to isolate culture as an area which can be one of the most challenging barriers to introducing change. Schein (2010) attributed culture as part of the informal organisation which influences values, beliefs and conflict. If this is not confronted then attempt to integrate change will become extremely difficult (Senior and Swailes, 2000). Gertsen et al (1998) proposed that this fierce resistance to change was due to the fact that employees emphasise cultural differences to demonstrate their distinctiveness and social identity.
              松本對文化的定義是:“文化是一群人所共有的、但每個人都不同的態度、價值觀、信仰和行為的集合,由一代人傳播到下一代”。與Jensen和Ruback的想法相反,管理層的罷免違反了克萊斯勒內部長期確立的文化,而這反過來又是戴姆勒-克萊斯勒合并這一災難性失敗的催化劑。員工抵制歐洲風格,這在兩個組織之間造成了巨大的沖突和緊張。順便說一句,這損害了溝通過程,導致產品質量差,與合并規模相比,銷售額令人失望。Pritchett確定“采辦項目的失敗率為61%,失敗被定義為沒有獲得顯著回報”。戴姆勒-克萊斯勒的情況就是如此,英國廣播公司報道稱,該公司的股價從2000年108美元的高點跌至創紀錄的低點42.79美元。合并僅僅兩年,業績就直線下降。BBC還透露,與戴姆勒董事長“平等合并”相反,Jurgen Schrempp實際上將克萊斯勒視為戴姆勒的一個部門,而不是合伙企業。正如上文所述,施雷姆普通過用迪特爾·澤奇取代克萊斯勒總裁吉姆·霍爾頓,將克萊斯勒定位為一家歐洲公司。迫使這一歐洲式的變革計劃受到了極大的質疑,并加劇了與克萊斯勒員工的脫節。通過Schein的“組織冰山”理論,很明顯將文化隔離為一個領域,這可能是引入變革最具挑戰性的障礙之一。Schein認為文化是影響價值觀、信仰和沖突的非正式組織的一部分。如果不正視這一點,那么整合變革的嘗試將變得極其困難。Gertsen等人提出,這種對變革的強烈抵制是由于員工強調文化差異以展示其獨特性和社會身份。
              Hofstede’s (2002) ‘Cultural Dimensions Theory’ found that culture within different organisations was influenced by which country they resided in. He developed the dimensions of national cultures which consisted of the power distance index, individualism versus collectivism, uncertainty avoidance index, masculinity vs femininity, long term orientation versus short term orientation and indulgence versus restraint. Hofstede (2002) found that these dimensions all varied in organisations depending on what their national identity was. From this it is clear to appreciate the huge problem of attempting to amalgamate a European and an American culture as there are so many variables. Daimler was very rigid and bureaucratic with Chrysler in contrast being much more informal. Daimler and Chrysler by their very cultures were incompatible, stressing the need for an effective change management programme. Haslam and Ellemers (2005) believed that there was positive correlation between the level of employee’s social identification towards the organisation and performance. It is apparent that a key reason for DaimlerChrysler’s drop in share price in 2000 was due to many of Chrysler’s employees seeing little association with themselves and their counterparts of Daimler. The companies in isolation varied in so many ways. For instance Daimler had a brand image of being a high end luxury brand while Chrysler was a low end cars and trucks manufacturer. These contrasts meant defining the very identity of the merger was plagued by paradox’s which meant both employees and customers failed to connect to DaimlerChrysler. Daimler had instilled a great emphasis on the operational and business synergies of the merger, seemingly ignoring the implications of culture.
              霍夫斯泰德“文化維度理論”發現,不同組織內的文化受其所在國家的影響。他提出了民族文化的維度,包括權力距離指數、個人主義與集體主義、不確定性回避指數、男性氣質與女性氣質、長期取向與短期取向以及放縱與克制。Hofstede發現,這些維度在組織中都有所不同,這取決于他們的國家身份。從這一點可以清楚地看出,試圖融合歐美文化是一個巨大的問題,因為有太多的變量。相比之下,戴姆勒對克萊斯勒的態度非常僵化和官僚作風,更為不拘一格。戴姆勒和克萊斯勒在文化上是不相容的,強調需要一個有效的變革管理計劃。Haslam和Ellemers認為,員工對組織的社會認同程度與績效呈正相關。很明顯,2000年戴姆勒-克萊斯勒股價下跌的一個關鍵原因是,許多克萊斯勒員工認為自己與戴姆勒的同行幾乎沒有什么關聯。孤立的公司在很多方面都有所不同。例如,戴姆勒的品牌形象是高端奢侈品牌,而克萊斯勒是低端轎車和卡車制造商。這些對比意味著,定義合并的身份本身就受到悖論的困擾,悖論意味著員工和客戶都無法與戴姆勒克萊斯勒建立聯系。戴姆勒一直強調并購的運營和業務協同效應,似乎忽視了文化的影響。
              Human Resource Management 人力資源管理
              The investment decision is one that is integral to any success of the allocation of capital by a company. Pike et al (2012) stated that the “investment decision is the decision to commit the firm’s financial and other resources to a particular course of action”. With culture being the predominant factor of the DaimlerChrysler merger’s demise, the HRM policies of the chairman at any given time were equally responsible. Daimler had envisioned lucrative rises in profit yet they failed to invest in a strategic human resource management process which would introduce the desired change in an effective manner (Gaughan, 2005). Schuler and Jackson (2001, p.239) attributed the importance of HRM to the interpretation that “companies today need to be fast growing, efficient, profitable, flexible, adaptable, future ready and have a dominant market position”. HRM is critical to implementing these factors which the DaimlerChrysler merger had lacked greatly, providing evidence as to why in the 21st century specifically that they crumbled. The transition of management and integration must be done in a systematic and people orientated approach (Schuler and Jackson, 2001). The HR issues associated with mergers can be categorised into two unique phases;
              投資決策是公司資本配置成功的關鍵。Pike等人表示,“投資決定是將公司的財務和其他資源投入到特定行動過程中的決定”。由于文化是戴姆勒-克萊斯勒合并失敗的主導因素,董事長在任何時候的人力資源管理政策都同樣重要。戴姆勒曾設想利潤會有利可圖的增長,但他們未能投資于戰略人力資源管理流程,該流程將有效地引入預期的變革。Schuler和Jackson將人力資源管理的重要性歸因于這樣一種解釋:“今天的公司需要快速增長、高效、盈利、靈活、適應性強、為未來做好準備,并擁有主導市場地位”。人力資源管理對于實施戴姆勒-克萊斯勒合并中嚴重缺乏的這些因素至關重要,這為為什么在21世紀它們會崩潰提供了證據。管理和整合的過渡必須以系統和以人為本的方式進行。與合并相關的人力資源問題可分為兩個獨特的階段;
              Pre-Merger: Involves an analysis of the cultural differences and other issues such as the impact on employee morale. This stage reinforces the need for human resource planning as such an analysis would demonstrate major challenge. Solutions to such difficulties would be to modify the recruitment and development process whilst introducing specific appraisal systems. The protracted difficulties would be allocated an effective change management plan by the HRM department. However, Daimler critically undervalued this crucial aspect of a potential merger, which would have long term effects as explained.
              合并前:包括分析文化差異和其他問題,如對員工士氣的影響。這一階段加強了人力資源規劃的必要性,因為這樣的分析將顯示出重大挑戰。解決這些困難的辦法是修改招聘和發展過程,同時引入具體的考核制度。人力資源管理部將為長期存在的困難制定有效的變革管理計劃。然而,戴姆勒嚴重低估了潛在合并的這一關鍵方面,正如所解釋的那樣,這將產生長期影響。
              Post-Merger: The reality of the impact of the merger on HR related areas is revealed at this stage. The diverse HRM practices can unsettle staff, with Chrysler’s staff resenting the European style of management, resulting in high levels of intransigence. Such emotional reaction diverts staff focus away from productivity, contributing heavily to laboured performance. The workshops devised by Daimler were not extensive enough to combat the massive cultural gap.
              合并后:現階段揭示了合并對人力資源相關領域影響的現實。不同的人力資源管理實踐可能會讓員工感到不安,克萊斯勒的員工對歐洲式的管理方式不滿,導致高度的不妥協。這種情緒反應將員工的注意力從生產力上轉移開,嚴重影響了員工的工作表現。戴姆勒設計的研討會不夠廣泛,無法消除巨大的文化差距。
              It is imperative that strategic HRM is implemented to adjust a company’s HRM strategy to that of the business strategy. For example Cisco has a culture constructed around risk taking and ambition. If they find that a protracted merger does not embody these values then they will refuse to force their culture on to a company, abandoning the prospect of the merger, such is the scale of problems which culture can present. There was also serious contemplation of separate headquarters such was the dismal level of communication between the two firms. Directions need to be from a centralised power source who is respected with Handy (1993) suggesting that this was the ideal way to assume control and maintain effective decision making. Chrysler’s flat structure when compared to Daimler’s hierarchical structure made it extremely difficult to initiate any HRM directives as both companies had different ways of doing so. The post-merger stage caused unprecedented difficulties for the merger as a result of little pre-merger analysis being undertaken. The cross-cultural differences were allowed to manifest into a massive concern with both Schrempp and Zetsche underperforming in their roles as chairmen of the merger. They distinctly did not commit their resources to developing training programmes which would have aided the alignment of Chrysler’s staff to that of the overall vision of Daimler.
              實施戰略性人力資源管理是為了將公司的人力資源管理戰略調整為業務戰略。例如,思科有一種圍繞冒險和雄心壯志構建的文化。如果他們發現長期的合并沒有體現這些價值觀,那么他們將拒絕將自己的文化強加給一家公司,放棄合并的前景,這就是文化可能帶來的問題的規模。也有人認真考慮設立單獨的總部,這就是兩家公司之間令人沮喪的溝通水平。方向需要來自中央電源,Handy認為這是承擔控制和維持有效決策的理想方式。與戴姆勒的層級結構相比,克萊斯勒的扁平結構使得啟動任何人力資源管理指令極其困難,因為兩家公司的方式不同。由于很少進行合并前分析,合并后階段給合并帶來了前所未有的困難??缥幕町惐辉试S表現為對Schrempp和Zetsche作為合并主席表現不佳的巨大擔憂。他們顯然沒有將資源投入到制定培訓計劃上,這些計劃本可以幫助克萊斯勒員工與戴姆勒的整體愿景保持一致。
              Tannenbaum and Yukl (1992) firmly contested that staff training was an area which should be reviewed regularly to ensure staff are being trained in accordance with the strategy of this business. Daimler did initiate HRM policies, but there was a lacking in depth. Regular staff appraisals and cross cultural learning days would have been methods of narrowing the gap between culture (Tannenbaum and Yukl, 1992).
              Tannenbaum和Yukl堅決反對員工培訓是一個應定期審查的領域,以確保員工按照該業務的戰略接受培訓。戴姆勒確實啟動了人力資源管理政策,但缺乏深度。定期員工評估和跨文化學習日本來是縮小文化差距的方法。
              Conclusion 結論
              From analysing the development and subsequent failure of the DaimlerChrysler merger it is abundantly clear that HRM’s involvement in the change management process is integral. To overcome cultural issues, a tailored strategic HRM policy must be implemented such is the formidability of cultural factors. Daimler failed to realise just how potent the resistance of change can be and that as explained, originates from the informal structure of a company. It is undeniable that the Daimler and Chrysler merger had the potential to dominate the automobile industry due to their individually established size and profit margins. However, it was a mammoth failing as the two companies in reality were never able to amalgamate into a single corporate identity. AOL and Time Warner was a similar failing with the $164 billion deal eventually resulting in Warner’s stock diving by 80% (Bewkes, 2010). AOL’s problem was that they did not anticipate that wireless internet and other relevant technology would revolutionise the broadband industry. They failed just like Daimler to analyse their threats and assess whether such a merger was of value. The Daimler and Chrysler merger was only a failure because Daimler underestimated the power that culture can forge. Strictly speaking, the merger for both companies was disastrous due to the stark culture gap, but equally so, this challenge was not managed effectively by the relevant departments. Perhaps the collapse of this huge merger can be embodied by Daimler’s chief of passenger cars, Juergen Hubbert who is quoted as saying “we have a clear understanding: one company, one vision, one chairman, two cultures” (The Economist, 2000).

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              留學生課程作業總結從分析戴姆勒-克萊斯勒合并的發展和隨后的失敗可以清楚地看出,人力資源管理參與變革管理過程是不可或缺的。為了克服文化問題,必須實施量身定制的戰略性人力資源管理政策,這就是文化因素的可塑性。戴姆勒未能意識到變革的阻力有多大,正如所解釋的那樣,這種阻力源于公司的非正式結構。不可否認的是,戴姆勒和克萊斯勒的合并由于其各自確定的規模和利潤率,有可能主導汽車行業。然而,這是一個巨大的失敗,因為這兩家公司實際上從未能夠合并成一個單一的企業形象。AOL和時代華納也同樣失敗,1640億美元的交易最終導致華納股價暴跌80%。AOL的問題是,他們沒有預料到無線互聯網和其他相關技術將徹底改變寬帶行業。他們沒有像戴姆勒一樣分析他們的威脅,評估這樣的合并是否有價值。戴姆勒和克萊斯勒的合并只是一個失敗,因為戴姆勒低估了文化可以塑造的力量。留學生課程作業提到從嚴格來說,由于明顯的文化差異,兩家公司的合并是災難性的,但同樣如此,這一挑戰沒有得到相關部門的有效管理。也許這一巨大合并的失敗可以體現在戴姆勒的乘用車主管Juergen Hubbert身上,他被引用說“我們有一個明確的認識:一個公司,一個愿景,一個董事長,兩種文化”。

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