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              人力資源Essay參考案例:HR's Impact on Long Term Environmental Sustainability

              論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-01-06 16:43:50 來源:www.eanhe.com 作者:留學作業網

              本文是人力資源專業的Essay范例,題目是HR's Impact on Long Term Environmental Sustainability(人力資源對長期環境可持續性的影響)”,本文的重點是人力資源(HR)在實現環境可持續性中的作用。它首先非常簡單地解釋了什么是環境可持續性,以及為什么對個人和組織來說,為實現與可持續性相關的目標做出貢獻是如此重要。下面簡要解釋什么是HR。接下來,它考慮了人力資源經理可能參與支持其組織實現可持續性目標的方式。專注于一個組織,然后可以發展一些想法,形成改善環境可持續性的建議基礎,這是人力資源的關鍵。

              Introduction介紹

              This essay focuses on the role of human resources (HR) in achieving environmental sustainability. It starts by very briefly explaining what environmental sustainability is, and why it is so important for individuals and organisations to contribute to achieving goals and targets related to sustainability. It next briefly explains what is meant by HR. Next it considers the ways in which HR managers are likely to be involved in supporting their organisations to reach sustainability targets. A focus on one organisation then allows some ideas to be developed that can form the basis of recommendations for improvement of environmental sustainability key to HR.

               人力資源Essay范例

              Environmental sustainability is a component of the sustainable development concept. This concept is described as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs(World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987:43). Essentially, it argues that to sustain life both human and animal the provision of clean water and air, and energy obtained from renewable resources are vital (Sutton, 2004).

              環境可持續性是可持續發展概念的一個組成部分。這一概念被描述為“既滿足當今的需要,又不損害后代滿足其自身需要的能力”(世界環境與發展委員會,1987:43)。從本質上說,它認為,為了維持生命——包括人類和動物——提供清潔的水和空氣,以及從可再生資源中獲得的能源是至關重要的(Sutton, 2004)。

               

              Human Resource departments might not seem the natural home of a focus on environmental sustainability, as often the burden of responsibility in an organisation is placed on an operations manager. However, there is definitely a role to play for human resources. In researching this issue, care must be taken to include terms that encompass the HR function these can include Human Resource Management (HRM), Employment Services (ES), Human Capital, Personnel and others (Abusafia, 2012).

               

              HR Management Support for the Drive Towards Environmental Sustainability為促進環境可持續發展提供人力資源管理支持

              There is a range of HR activities that directly contribute to the environmental sustainability of an organisation. These often revolve around the development of greenjobs and the infrastructure, training, personal development planning, performance management, communication, attitude monitoring and other aspects that go along with the creation of new posts, or new components of existing posts (Jackson, 2012). Liebowitz (2010) argues that the role of HR is more fundamental and deep seated than developing processes he suggests that the HR department has a very significant role to play in the creation of a companys sustainability culture, as it is professionally trained to change the attitudes and behaviours of employees, from senior executives to the most junior of staff (Liebowitz, 2010). Liebowitz also argues that HR managers are far removed from the old traditional personnel manager. Today, HR staff are likely to know much more about the business, and they use a human capital management approach to underpin the development of staff to achieve environmental objectives (Lebowitz, 2010). Wilkins (2014) identifies the skill to motivate and encourage employees to become engaged with sustainability programmes within an organisation as key to their success (Wilkins, 2014). In fact, Wilkins argues that to achieve success, three key components are necessary communication, education and motivation. Communication includes good environmental practice for employees (reducing energy use), and highlighting individual and organisational environmental achievements (Wilkins, 2014). Education can be used to provide employees with practical information about integrating environmental objectives into their daily work, for example, engaging in recycling activities; this can also improve productivity as all staff are working towards a common purpose (Wilkins, 2014). Motivation in the form of an environmentally focussed rewards programme can ensure that employees remain committed, and can actually help retention of valuable staff (Wilkins, 2014).

              有一系列的人力資源活動,直接有助于一個組織的環境可持續性。這些通常圍繞著“綠色”工作的發展——以及基礎設施、培訓、個人發展規劃、績效管理、溝通、態度監控和其他方面,這些都伴隨著新崗位或現有崗位的新組成部分的創建(Jackson, 2012)。Liebowitz(2010)認為人力資源的角色是更根本和深層開發流程——他認為,人力資源部門有一個非常重要的角色在創建公司可持續發展的文化,因為它是受過專業訓練來改變員工的態度和行為,從高級管理人員到最初級的員工(Liebowitz, 2010)。Liebowitz還認為,人力資源經理與傳統的人事經理相去甚遠。今天,人力資源員工可能對業務了解得更多,他們使用人力資本管理方法來支持員工的發展,以實現環境目標(Lebowitz, 2010)。威爾金斯(2014)認為,激勵和鼓勵員工參與組織內的可持續發展項目的技能是他們成功的關鍵(威爾金斯,2014)。事實上,威爾金斯認為,要想取得成功,三個關鍵要素是必要的——溝通、教育和激勵。溝通包括員工良好的環境實踐(減少能源使用),并強調個人和組織的環境成就(威爾金斯,2014)??梢岳媒逃蚬蛦T提供有關將環保目標納入日常工作的實用信息,例如參與回收活動;這也可以提高生產力,因為所有的員工都在朝著一個共同的目標工作(威爾金斯,2014)。以環境為重點的獎勵計劃的形式激勵員工,可以確保員工保持忠誠,并可以幫助留住有價值的員工(威爾金斯,2014)。

               

              Cohen et al (2012) suggest that one influencing factor on the role HR plays in supporting environmental sustainability, will be the motivations behind the organisations move towards more sustainable operations and strategies. They argue that the route taken may make the HR contribution easier or more difficult. They identify a values-based route, a strategic route and a defensive route. The first is associated mostly with the personal principles of the founders of small businesses some of which may have become much larger (Cohen et al, 2012). The second is those businesses that identify opportunities in redesigning products or services to expand into markets where environmental characteristics are valued (Cohen et al, 2012). Lastly, the defensive route occurs when companies come under pressure to change their approach, perhaps because of a pollution incident (Cohen et al, 2012). It is clear that each of these routes will have a different impact on the work of the HR manager: where the business chooses to commit to environmental objectives, there is likely to be a positive culture, whilst companies forced into accepting change in environmental attitudes are likely to generate at least some resistance (Harmon et al, 2010).

               人力資源Essay怎么寫

              What the above discussion shows is that there is motivation for HR managers and departments to become involved in supporting a move towards environmental sustainability in their organisation. There are a number of HR tools that can be used to embed such sustainability objectives into an organisation. There are four main areas where such tools may be deployed: employee attraction and selection; employee training, development and compensation; creating a sustainable organisational climate; and, management support and communication (Cohen et al, 2012). Having a good environmental profile has been found to attract high quality employees (Government of Canada, n.d.), and to retain these employees for longer than average retention periods (Ernst & Young, 2013), and the HR department can therefore use a commitment to environmental sustainability in their job advertising, ensuring that they have an edge over their competitors (Ernst & Young, 2013). To maintain and energise staff to commit to environmental processes, i.e. to motivate employees (Human Resource Excellence, 2012) it is necessary to provide targeted training, for example, in life cycle analysis to reduce inefficiency and waste, and to include formal evaluations of such commitment i.e. targets to be achieved in job plans (Manufacturing Skills Australia, 2015). Changing an organisations culture is often the most challenging, but also the most necessary approach. While there may be commitment at the senior management level, this is likely to decline the further down the organisational hierarchy you go (Petrini and Pozzebon, 2010). This is especially true in traditional industries, such as construction, where male dominated heavy labour has little cultural awareness of environmental issues (Built Environment Sustainability Training, 2014). Management support through communication that relates to employees lives can indicate an overall organisational commitment to environmental sustainability, and can encourage people to integrate environmental principles throughout their daily lives (Fleischer, 2009). HR can assist in all of these areas through training, communication, incentivisation, PDP and other such tools. The following section provides some recommendations for such actions in one organisation.

               

              Recommendations for Improving Environmental Sustainability Through HR通過人力資源改善環境可持續性的建議

              The organisation chosen for the case study is a construction company, McGregor Construction, which is located in the Scottish Highlands. This company was formed in 1977, but has previous history going back 132 years (McGregor Construction n.d.). Annual turnover is around £9.5 million, and the company covers the construction spectrum, including building projects for hospitals, sports stadiums, shopping centres, council housing, and private housing (McGregor Construction, n.d.). Work includes both new build and repairs to existing properties, some of these being very old and architecturally important. It has 68 employees, many of whom have been with the company for a long time (Endole, 2015). .

              案例研究選擇的組織是位于蘇格蘭高地的McGregor建筑公司。該公司成立于1977年,但已有132年的歷史(McGregor Construction n.d.)。年營業額約為950萬英鎊,公司的建筑范圍包括醫院、體育場館、購物中心、市政住房和私人住房的建筑項目(McGregor construction, n.d.)。工作包括新建和維修現有的財產,其中一些是非常舊的和重要的建筑。它有68名員工,其中許多人已經在公司很長一段時間(Endole, 2015)。

               

              The employee profile is important in that it is largely male (80%), and largely older age groups, with 63% in the 40 56 years age bracket, and 7% in the 57 70, 5% in the 70+, while 15% is in the 25 39 years and 10% in the 18 24 bracket. Many of the older employees are highly skilled, not only in modern building techniques but in traditional craft based skills building techniques.

               

              The company has come under increasing pressure to develop a strategic and operational approach to environmental management. This pressure has arisen partly from the industry itself, as the construction sector has made substantial efforts to integrate sustainability objectives into the activities and functions of the industry (European Commission, 2012). It has also arisen from pressure through the supply chain as McGregor is a supplier of services to a number of large customers, who have a commitment to greening their supply chains. Finally, the company is aware that they are not as efficient as they could be in managing their energy use and waste, and are seeking to improve these aspects to save money. The five main environmental objectives the company has identified are: to reduce waste throughout the company by 40% in the next year, to reduce fuel use and on site energy used combined by 40% in the next year, to increase the use of recycled materials by 10%, and to support community environmental objectives, and to reduce on site noise pollution, again all in the next financial year.

              該公司面臨著越來越大的壓力,需要開發一種戰略和操作方法來進行環境管理。這種壓力部分來自于行業本身,因為建筑部門做出了大量的努力,將可持續發展目標融入行業的活動和功能(歐洲委員會,2012)。它也來自供應鏈的壓力——因為麥格雷戈是許多大型客戶的服務供應商,這些客戶承諾綠色供應鏈。最后,該公司意識到,在管理能源使用和浪費方面,他們并沒有達到應有的效率,并正在尋求改善這些方面,以節省資金。公司確定的五個主要環境目標是:減少浪費整個公司明年40%,減少燃料的使用和現場能源消耗總和40%,明年增加10%回收材料的使用,并支持社區環境目標、現場和減少噪音污染,又在下個財政年度。

               

              There are a number of recommendations that can be made to support the HR manager who is assisted by one member of staff for administrative purposes in achieving these objectives. Using the four main areas of HR related improvement identified by Cohen et al (2012), a range of specific actions may be taken.

               

              First, employee attraction and selection. One HR tool is to integrate the selection of new employees with the long term environmental strategy of the company so for all future employees it is recommended that an environmental component is built into job plans or descriptions. Specifically, waste management and energy use reduction should be a target tasked for all new employees. This should be followed up by the inclusion of environmental stewardship questions as part of the interview process; candidates could even be asked to give a very short presentation on the importance of environmental management in the construction industry. By using these tools, it not only signals to prospective employees that the company is seriously committed to environmental improvement, and that if they are employed they will be expected to contribute. It may also attract individuals who might otherwise have ignored a small company in favour of finding a large one with an established sustainability strategy.

              第一,員工的吸引力和選擇。一個人力資源工具是將新員工的選擇與公司的長期環境戰略相結合——因此,對于所有未來的員工,建議在工作計劃或描述中加入環境要素。具體來說,廢棄物管理和能源使用減少應該是所有新員工的目標。隨后應將環境管理問題作為面試過程的一部分;申請人甚至會被要求就環境管理在建造業的重要性作簡短的介紹。通過使用這些工具,它不僅向未來的員工發出公司認真致力于環境改善的信號,而且如果他們被雇傭,他們將被期望為環境改善做出貢獻。它還可能吸引那些原本可能忽視小公司、轉而青睞具有既定可持續發展戰略的大公司的個人。

               

              Second, employee training, development and compensation. Here HR can have a substantial input. Environmental training programmes can be devised and be mandatory for all staff (CIPD, 2015), with specific focus for some staff on certain issues. For example, for people labouring or working actually in building processes, a focus on the handling of materials and reduction of waste would be a sensible inclusion. Training for all staff on energy conservation i.e. switching off machinery, lights and so on when not required, would be an easy initial approach. Training programmes should be aligned with the companys environmental objectives, so that the training can directly feed into the achievement of the objectives. Compensation is a useful approach, and can be operationalised by HR in a number of ways. For example, Intel uses an Environmental Excellence award programme, which incentivises environmental behaviour through peer review of nominations for environmental innovation (Patton, 2013). One outcome was the reduction of energy consumption of chillers, boiler plants and vacuum pumps that in just one factory is estimated to save $38 million (Patton, 2013). On a much smaller scale, such a programme could be supported and instigated in McGregors with innovations in material recycling, energy use reduction, fuel saving, building technologies and techniques and carbon reduction as expected outcomes.

              第二,員工培訓、發展和薪酬。在這里,人力資源可以有大量的投入??梢詾樗泄ぷ魅藛T制定并強制執行環境培訓計劃(CIPD, 2015),并特別關注某些問題上的某些工作人員。例如,對于在建筑過程中勞動或實際工作的人來說,關注材料處理和減少浪費將是一個明智的包括。對所有工作人員進行節約能源方面的培訓,即在不需要時關掉機器、電燈等,是一個簡單的初步辦法。培訓方案應與公司的環境目標相一致,以便培訓能直接促進目標的實現。薪酬是一種有用的方法,人力資源可以通過多種方式進行操作。例如,英特爾采用了環境卓越獎計劃,通過對環境創新提名的同行評審來激勵環境行為(Patton, 2013)。其中一個結果是減少了制冷器、鍋爐和真空泵的能源消耗,僅在一個工廠估計就節省了3800萬美元(巴頓,2013)。在一個小得多的規模上,這樣的項目可以得到McGregor的支持和鼓勵——在材料回收、能源使用減少、燃料節約、建筑技術和技術以及減少碳排放方面的創新是預期的結果。

               

              Third is the creation of a sustainable organisational climate. Here HR can contribute by using sustainability oriented entry, performance and exit practices (Verburg and Den Hartog, 2006), as long as senior management recognises the importance of integrating HR into the overall company sustainability strategy (Putter, 2010). In achieving a sustainability oriented climate, HR can be especially useful in supporting the work of line managers in recruiting more employees, managing their environmental performance, and ensuring that when they leave they do so with substantial environmental awareness, and respect for what the company have done. Indeed, if HR integrates environmental issues across the whole company through workforce planning then this directly feeds into the organisational climate (Petrini and Pozzebon, 2010)

              第三,創造一種可持續的組織氛圍。在這里,人力資源可以通過使用可持續發展導向的進入、績效和退出實踐(VerburgDen Hartog, 2006)做出貢獻,只要高級管理層認識到將人力資源整合到整個公司可持續發展戰略的重要性(Putter, 2010)。在實現可持續發展的環境中,人力資源在支持直線經理招聘更多員工、管理他們的環境績效、確保他們在離職時具有充分的環境意識和尊重公司所做的工作方面特別有用。事實上,如果人力資源通過員工計劃整合整個公司的環境問題,那么這將直接影響到組織氣候(PetriniPozzebon, 2010)。

               

              The final area of recommendations is for management support and communication. It is vital that the company directors and senior managers demonstrate absolute commitment to environmental sustainability and they should lead by example. An employee of the month scheme could be instituted with public recognition of an individuals environmental achievements being a well recognised effective approach (Silverman, 2004). Employees seeing that senior managers are rewarding such behaviours are likely to engage with further activities when they are introduced by HR through the tools previously described.

               

              Conclusions結論

              It is clear the HR has a substantial role to play in the integration of environmental sustainability in any organisation and has an increasing range of tools and systems that can be used to achieve this.

              很明顯,在任何組織中,人力資源在整合環境可持續性方面都扮演著重要的角色,并且有越來越多的工具和系統可以用來實現這一目標。

               

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