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              標準的管理學essay怎么寫[范文參考]

              論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-08-11 09:57:48 來源:www.eanhe.com 作者:留學作業網

              管理學essay范文——Acquired-needs Theory and Equity Theory獲得需要理論與公平理論,本文是一篇留學生管理專業的Essay寫作格式參考。獲得需要理論和公平理論是影響動機的理論。動機與組織行為直接相關。動機被定義為實現一個目標或一個明確的績效水平的愿望,導致目標導向的行為。當一個人受到激勵時,他會努力完成一項任務。動機受個人需求的影響。激勵在組織中的重要性和工作滿意度是實現組織目標和目標的必要條件。組織行為學被定義為對人們和群體在他們工作的組織中如何行為的研究和應用。因此,獲得需要理論和公平理論影響組織行為。范文以下是管理學essay范例寫作的全部內容,是一篇符合國外大學Essay寫作格式要求的范文,供參考。

              管理學essay范文

              Introduction引言

              Acquired-needs theory and equity theory are theories that impact motivation. Motivation is directly linked to organizational behavior. Motivation is defined as the desire to accomplish a goal or a definite performance level, leading to goal-directed behavior. When an individual is motivated, the individual tries hard to accomplish a task. Motivation is impacted by individual needs. The significance of motivation in organizations and job satisfaction is essential for the achievement of organizational goals and objectives. Organizational behavior is defined as the study and application of knowing about how people and groups act within the organizations where they work. Therefore, the acquired-needs theory and equity theory impact organization behavior.

              Acquired-Needs Theory and Equity Theory獲得需要理論與公平理論

              Acquired-needs theory is a need-based theory of motivation. The theory was proposed by psychologist David McClennan. According to the theory, people acquire three types of needs as a outcome of their life skills. The three needs are need for achievement, need for affiliation, and need for power. Individuals who have high need for achievement have a strong need to be prosperous. Individuals with need for achievement are attracted to organizations that are merit-based and reward performance rather than seniority. Individuals who have high need for affiliation want to be liked and accepted by others. Individuals who have high need for power want to influence others and control their environment.

              獲得需要理論是一種基于需求的動機理論。這個理論是由心理學家大衛·麥克倫南提出的。根據該理論,作為生活技能的結果,人們獲得了三種類型的需求。這三種需求是成就需求、歸屬需求和權力需求。對成就有高度需求的個人有強烈的繁榮需求。有成就需求的個人會被以業績為基礎、獎勵業績而不是資歷的組織所吸引。對歸屬感有高度需求的人希望被他人喜歡和接受。對權力有高度需求的人想要影響他人和控制他們的環境。

              Equity theory is a process-based theory of motivation. The theory was proposed by behavioral psychologist J. Stacy James. According to the theory, employees will evaluate their input against the output they receive from it. Inputs are the contributions people feel they are making to the organization. Outcomes are the perceived rewards someone can receive from the situation. Equity perceptions develop as a result of a subjective process. Sense of fairness is a result of the social comparisons individuals make. More specifically, individuals compare their inputs and outcomes with other people’s inputs and outcomes. Individuals perceive fairness if they believe that the input-to-outcome ratio is similar to the input-to-outcome ratio of a comparison person. Distributive justice refers to the degree to which the outcomes received from the organization are observed to be fair. Procedural justice refers to the degree to which fair managerial procedures are used to reach a decision. Interactional justice refers to the degree to which people are treated with respect, kindness, and dignity by others.

              公平理論是一種基于過程的激勵理論。該理論是由行為心理學家J. Stacy James提出的。根據這一理論,員工會根據他們從中得到的輸出來評估他們的投入。輸入是人們感覺自己對組織做出的貢獻。結果是某人從情境中獲得的感知獎勵。公平觀念的發展是主觀過程的結果。公平感是個體進行社會比較的結果。更具體地說,個人會將自己的投入和結果與他人的投入和結果進行比較。如果個體相信投入對結果的比率與比較者的投入對結果的比率相似,他們就會感知公平。分配正義是指從組織獲得的結果被遵守的公平程度。程序公正指的是在何種程度上使用公平的管理程序來達成一個決定?;庸傅氖侨藗兪艿剿俗鹬?、友善和尊嚴的程度。

              Theory Impact on Organization Behavior理論對組織行為的影響

              Theory of acquired needs has significant effects for the motivation of employees. Managers need to understand the needs of their employees to be able to motivate them. Individuals with high need for achievement are constantly striving to improve their performance and focus on goals. If an individual with high need for achievement is not rewarded in regard to their performance, then the individual will be upset. However, individuals with need for achievement may not be well suited for management positions. Management encompasses completing work by encouraging others and those with high need for achievement might perceive managerial activities as a waste of time. Individuals with need for affiliation prefer to interact with others and be with friends. These individuals emphasize on harmonious interpersonal relationships. If the individual is not affiliated with a group or working alone, then their productivity will decline which affects the whole organization. However, individuals with need for affiliation may not be well suited for management positions. Management involves critiquing and disciplining subordinates which those with need for affiliation will not be able to complete because they are concerned about how they are perceived by others. Individuals with high need for power desire to make an impact on the organization. They thrive from influencing others which make them candidates for managerial positions. The acquired needs theory allows organizations to inspect the needs of their employees and see if their needs are being fulfilled.

              留學生課程作業

              獲得需要理論對員工的激勵具有重要的作用。管理者需要了解員工的需求才能激勵他們。成就需求高的個體會不斷努力提高自己的表現,并專注于目標。如果一個對成就有很高需求的人沒有得到與他們的表現相關的獎勵,那么這個人會感到沮喪。然而,有成就需求的個人可能不太適合管理職位。管理包括通過鼓勵他人來完成工作,那些對成就有高度需求的人可能會認為管理活動是浪費時間。有從屬需要的人更喜歡與他人互動,與朋友在一起。這些人強調和諧的人際關系。如果個人不隸屬于一個團隊或獨自工作,那么他們的生產力將會下降,從而影響整個組織。然而,有從屬關系需要的個人可能不適合管理職位。管理包括批評和紀律下屬,這是那些需要加入的人無法完成的,因為他們關心別人如何看待他們。對權力需求高的個人希望對組織產生影響。他們通過影響他人而茁壯成長,這使他們成為管理職位的候選人。獲得性需要理論允許組織檢查他們的員工的需要,看看他們的需要是否被滿足。

              Equity theory has significant effects for the motivation of employees. High levels of justice create greater levels of employee commitment to organizations. Distributive justice is relevant to perceived fairness of an outcome. Managers need to adapt their fairness according to their subordinate. Everyone’s notion of fairness different. Therefore, the manager needs to evaluate and adapt their level of fairness to the individual. Procedural justice is relevant to layoffs, employee selection, performance evaluations, and pay decisions which all affect the organization. Employees generally care about procedural justice when employees do not get the outcome, they feel they deserve. By using procedures that are fair when making decisions, employees are productive which affects the organization. Interactional justice is relevant to the treatment of employees. Employees expect to be treated with dignity by their peers, supervisors, and customers. When they are not treated with respect, employees get upset.

              Significance of Theories理論的意義

               Acquired-needs theory is significant because it drives motivation and behavior of employees. If their particular need is not fulfilled, then they are discouraged which meads to a decline in productivity. The acquired-need theory helps managers understand the needs of their employees which creates a better work environment. When employees’ needs are fulfilled, they are more motivated to work which benefits the organization as a whole.

              獲得性需求理論具有重要意義,因為它驅動員工的動機和行為。如果他們的特殊需求沒有得到滿足,他們就會氣餒,這就意味著生產力的下降。獲得性需要理論幫助管理者了解員工的需求,從而創造更好的工作環境。當員工的需求得到滿足時,他們會更有動力去工作,這有利于整個組織。

              Equity theory is significant because employers benefit from observing and developing paying all three types of justice interaction. Not only is it the right thing for an organization to do, but it leads to beneficial outcomes for the organization. Justice and fairness are related to employees’ psychological health and well-bring. Furthermore, managers who are treated fairly by their bosses treat their own subordinates in a fairer manner. The equity theory creates a trickle-down affect when it is put to use in an organization.

              公平理論是重要的,因為雇主受益于觀察和發展支付所有三種類型的正義互動。這不僅是一個組織要做的正確的事情,而且會為組織帶來有益的結果。公正與公平關系到員工的心理健康和良好心態。此外,受到上司公平對待的管理者會以更公平的方式對待自己的下屬。當公平理論在組織中使用時,它會產生涓滴效應。

              References參考文獻

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