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              心理學Essay格式:Metacognitive Strategies to Improve Comprehension in Adolescents

              論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-05-23 11:26:29 來源:www.eanhe.com 作者:留學作業網

              本文是心理學專業的Essay范例,題目是“Metacognitive Strategies to Improve Comprehension in Adolescents(提高青少年理解能力的元認知策略)”,本研究表明,元認知是一種青少年學生可以學習的技能。這是通過課堂上的實踐和策略的使用來實現的。

              元認知涉及學生的理解能力和自我調節能力,有助于學生在學校的表現。如果運用得當,這項技能可以幫助學生學好所有科目。教育工作者在課堂上使用的以研究為基礎的策略,如自我調節、大聲思考和模仿,會讓學生受益。這些策略和其他策略一起,幫助學生發展批判性思維能力,這將是終生受益的。

              Abstract摘要

              This research paper shows that metacognition is a skill that can be learned by adolescent students. This is done with practice and the use of strategies implemented in the classroom. Using metacognition helps student’s performance in school as it relates to comprehension and self-regulation. This skill, when implemented appropriately, can help students with all subjects. Students benefit from research-based strategies that educators use in the classroom such as self-regulating, think aloud, and modeling. These strategies, along with others, help students to develop critical thinking skills that can be used for a lifetime.

              “Does one think about thinking? “(Beswick, Luszcz, Mann, and Ormond, 1991). As educators, this is something one ponders when teaching metacognition. Researchers feel that understanding the students’ power to direct their own learning comes from self-regulation. In order for students to self-regulate, they need to understand what metacognition is.  Metacognition refers to knowledge, awareness, and control of one’s own learning. Students, who have metacognitive knowledge and skills, have effective cognitive performance (Sekar, 2016). Educators should use metacognition strategies for adolescents across the curriculum to improve all student’s comprehension and learning skills. Before educators can use strategies to improve metacognition in adolescents, they must first understand what it is.

              “人會思考思考嗎?”(Beswick, Luszcz, Mann, and Ormond, 1991)。作為教育者,這是在教授元認知時需要思考的問題。研究人員認為,理解學生指導自己學習的能力來自于自我調節。為了使學生能夠自我調節,他們需要了解什么是元認知。元認知是指知識、意識和對自己學習的控制。具有元認知知識和技能的學生具有有效的認知表現(Sekar, 2016)。教育工作者應該在整個課程中使用元認知策略來提高所有學生的理解和學習技能。在教育者使用策略來提高青少年元認知之前,他們必須首先了解它是什么。

               

              心理學Essay格式

              As an educator, it is important to understand what metacognition is and the history behind it. There are many definitions related to metacognition, but through research it has been narrowed down to ,“Metacognition is a concept of cognitive psychology that focuses on the active participation of the individual in his or her thinking process”, (Bond, Denton, &Ellis, 2013). Young children are not aware of their thinking processes, but as they get older they retain more knowledge. With this, their memory grows. Adolescents are able to remember strategies and make more predictions from their prior knowledge. Students learn from the knowledge of task and the knowledge of self. Being able to achieve task performance is a result in students metacognition. Early to middle adolescents is a crucial time for students to develop thinking skills. Research shows that by the time a student reaches fifteen years old, they make decisions in ways that are similar to adults (Beswick et al., 1991). Students who can self-regulate are able to make decisions, problem solve and think critically. There is history behind this process. According to the research, metacognition is one’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes and products, or anything related to them (Cubukcu, 2009).

              作為一名教育工作者,理解什么是元認知及其背后的歷史是很重要的。與元認知相關的定義有很多,但經過研究,它被縮小為“元認知是一種認知心理學的概念,它關注的是個體在其思維過程中的積極參與”(Bond, Denton, &Ellis, 2013)。年幼的孩子并沒有意識到他們的思維過程,但隨著年齡的增長,他們保留了更多的知識。這樣,他們的記憶就會增長。青少年能夠記住策略,并根據他們之前的知識做出更多的預測。學生從任務知識和自我知識中學習。學生的元認知能力是學生完成任務的結果。青少年早期到中期是培養學生思維能力的關鍵時期。研究表明,當學生達到15歲時,他們做決定的方式與成年人相似(Beswick et al., 1991)。能夠自我調節的學生能夠做出決定,解決問題和批判性思考。這一過程的背后是有歷史的。根據研究,元認知是一個人對自己的認知過程和產品,或與之相關的任何事物的認識(Cubukcu, 2009)。

              It has been the pedagogical goal of theorist to show how to understand learning. John Flavell built on Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development. The consensus soon arrived that children who develop effective metacognitive skills were more likely to become successful learners (Golder, Lundie, Perry, 2018). Flavell proved that when metacognition was used correctly students can become independent thinkers, creative thinkers, and reflective learners. He encouraged students and teachers to engage with academic work using creative classroom strategies that promoted higher order thinking skills. He measured students’ knowledge that included knowledge of decision making and the motivation and beliefs of that students’ ability. He examined what made decisions and problems hard and then associated it with how the students learned. Once educators understand the background of metacognition, they can begin to understand the strategies used to teach thinking skills in the classroom.

              Educators can help students acquire metacognitive knowledge with strategies to improve their learning skills. Students learn to set goals, plan, organize, self-monitor , and self-evaluate during strategies being used. Students who can self-regulate are able to perform better under pressure and are motivated when it comes to academic success. When using strategies that promote higher order thinking, students retain skills over time and those skills transfer to a variety of contexts. Flavell looked at metacognition as a bridge from childhood to adulthood (Sekar, 2016). The role of metacognition with teaching strategies is not to just reflect their thinking but to improve their thinking processes. Teaching is as an “evidence-informed profession”, (Golder et al., 2018). Due to this, educators want to understand what works best in their classroom to offer vigorous strategies to help their students achieve to the highest of their ability.

              教育工作者可以通過策略幫助學生獲得元認知知識,從而提高學生的學習技能。學生在使用策略的過程中學會設定目標、計劃、組織、自我監控和自我評估。能夠自我調節的學生能夠在壓力下表現得更好,在學業上取得成功時也更有動力。當使用促進更高層次思維的策略時,學生們會隨著時間的推移保留技能,并將這些技能轉移到各種環境中。弗拉威爾將元認知視為從童年到成年的橋梁(Sekar, 2016)。元認知在教學策略中的作用不僅僅是反映學生的思維,而是改善學生的思維過程。教學是一種“循證職業”(Golder et al., 2018)。因此,教育工作者想要了解什么在他們的課堂上最有效,以提供有力的策略,以幫助他們的學生達到他們的能力的最高水平。

              There are many strategies that can be used for metacognition skills to develop. For research purposes this paper discusses the most popular strategies used in the schools by educators. Metacognition includes reading skills such as skimming, utilizing prior knowledge, predicting, self-questioning, and comprehension monitoring. Students who are aware of their thinking as they read have an advantage over other students. They are able to clarify difficult passages and explain what they have read with a great understanding.  There are many strategies for educators to look at when teaching students how to apply thinking. “Wherever metacognitive skills are taught in lessons, there appears to be improvements in pupil outcomes, irrespective of which subjects are being taught”, (Golder et al., 2018). Strategies have proven that there is a relationship between metacognition and intelligence. One of the most popular strategies in the classroom today is modeling.

              Modeling is an essential strategy used with metacognition. This is used by many educators to help students learn how to think about what they are reading. The teacher reads aloud to the student and models what to do.  Modeling includes having the student think about their own processes and the products of their thinking. The teacher may use questioning, predictions, and summarizing, for example, to discuss the text that is being read. This helps students become more engaged with the text and shows them how to analyze it as well. The research shows that modeling in consistent practice is one of the characteristics of effective metacognitive strategy instruction (Bond et al., 2013). When using modeling, it is critical to use strategies such as think aloud. This is used to verbalize the steps of what is being learned. It involved posing questions, identifying resources, and reciting affirmations (Bond et al., 2013). Students can be taught with concept maps, webs, and flow charts. Educators can use think aloud with speaking, writing, and reading as a critical element to the lesson taught.  Students learn how to plan, monitor, and evaluate when preforming task with reading. As students use this strategy, they are able to engage with other students about what was read. This strategy is proven sufficient for all student abilities as it forces the student to think about what is read and how to apply it when conversing with their peers (Joseph, 2006). Another important strategy used within the classroom by educators is self-questioning.

              建模是元認知的一種基本策略。這被許多教育工作者用來幫助學生學習如何思考他們所閱讀的內容。老師給學生大聲朗讀并做榜樣。建模包括讓學生思考他們自己的過程和他們思考的產物。例如,教師可以使用提問、預測和總結來討論正在閱讀的文本。這可以幫助學生更多地參與到文本中,并告訴他們如何分析它。研究表明,在一致實踐中建模是有效元認知策略教學的特征之一(Bond et al., 2013)。在使用建模時,使用諸如“大聲思考”之類的策略是至關重要的。這是用來描述學習的步驟。它包括提出問題、確定資源和背誦肯定(Bond等人,2013年)。學生可以通過概念圖、網絡和流程圖來學習。教育工作者可以將“大聲思考”與“說”、“寫”和“讀”結合起來,作為課程的關鍵元素。學生學習在執行閱讀任務時如何計劃、監控和評估。當學生使用這一策略時,他們能夠與其他學生就所閱讀的內容進行交流。這一策略已被證明足以滿足所有學生的能力,因為它迫使學生思考閱讀的內容,以及在與同齡人交談時如何應用它(約瑟夫,2006)。教育家在課堂上使用的另一個重要策略是自我質疑。

              Educators also need to use self-questioning when teaching strategies are used towards learning metacognition. Students have to be taught what type of questions they should be asking. This can be done through modeling how to self-question. This improves attitudes in students and motivation as they perform in class. It takes explicit instruction for students to learn how to understand rationalizing of text. As students learn to use questions to answer what they are reading, they become more empowered to break down text as they comprehend it. As educators we need to plan, monitor, and evaluate. Teaching this skill is essential, but it is also important to take the role as a facilitator to allow the student to develop their own questions and learn. “Metacognitive skills develop when students practice questioning techniques because a wide range of thinking processes are being developed. As researchers note, all students should be able to think, reflect, and question in an effective manner”, (Joseph, 2006). Metacognitive strategies bring the average students ability to think to a higher level.

              Students learn how to use text on the explicit level all the way to the creative level. This is done with self-questioning. Students need to understand what is said in the text, but it is also important for them to learn how to read between the lines and infer.  Educators are encouraging to generate questions that include evaluating and synthesizing the text. Once students do this, they will progress to learning how to look beyond the text, think critically, and then develop on thinking creatively as well. Students who use this become self-reflective learners. They succeed in exploring their understanding and knowing what they have learned.  Key terms to know as an educator as they are teaching this skill is to understand the different types of knowledge.

              學生學習如何使用文本在顯式水平一直到創造性水平。這是通過自我反省來完成的。學生們需要理解文章里說的是什么,但是學習如何讀字里行間和推斷也很重要。教育工作者鼓勵提出問題,包括評估和綜合文本。一旦學生做到了這一點,他們將進步到學習如何超越文本,批判性思考,然后發展創造性思維。使用這種方法的學生會成為自我反思的學習者。他們成功地探索自己的理解,并知道他們所學到的東西。作為一個教育工作者,當他們教授這一技能時,要知道的關鍵術語是理解不同類型的知識。

               

              心理學Essay怎么寫

              Declarative knowledge is the knowledge to take one’s own mistakes and learn from it. Using this teaches student how to self-correct. Conditional/contextual knowledge is used to help develop student’s metacognition skills. Students learn to look for patterns and errors. They learn that they are in control of their own outcomes in school. They learn self-concept with this. The last type of knowledge is procedural knowledge. Students learn how to identify what the correct information or approach is to learn. They are able to omit errors and formulate what they have learned in the material. This can used in both oral and written form. Students learning how to use this knowledge understand feedback better when given and perform better (Hartman, 2001). Good students who have learned how to use thinking skills engage in mental interactions with the text by visualizing, self-questioning, and inferring.

              Students should be encouraged to interact with the text. Students can use post-it notes and a pen to develop skills ,for example, to an active reader. Learning to write while reading is a great way to teach reading comprehension. “Developing readers may acquire knowledge about various reading strategies, which can be used for the accomplishment of specific reading goals” (Comprehension Monitoring, 2006).  Students who are aware of their reading skills will take steps to clarify the comprehension process (Hartman, 2001). There is a correlation between metacognition and reading strategies to increase reading comprehension in upper elementary and higher grades. Students monitoring their comprehension is not enough. They must use strategies as predictors of reading comprehension (Comprehension monitoring, 2006). Research shows that comprehension is needed in order to be a competent reader. Without comprehension students will not be able to detect inconsistencies within the text they read.  There is a list of things that educators can do to help students become self-regulated learners.

              應鼓勵學生與課文互動。學生可以使用便利貼和筆來培養技能,例如,對一個積極的讀者。邊讀邊寫是教授閱讀理解的好方法?!鞍l展閱讀者可以獲得各種閱讀策略的知識,這些策略可用于實現特定的閱讀目標”(Comprehension Monitoring, 2006)。了解自己閱讀技巧的學生將采取步驟來闡明理解過程(Hartman, 2001)。元認知與閱讀策略對提高小學高年級學生的閱讀理解有一定的相關性。學生監控他們的理解是不夠的。他們必須使用策略作為閱讀理解的預測因子(理解監測,2006)。研究表明,要想成為一個有能力的讀者,理解是必要的。沒有理解,學生將無法發現他們閱讀的文本中的不一致之處。教育家可以做一系列的事情來幫助學生成為自我調節的學習者。

              First, it is important to explain the value of the metacognitive activity and emphasize the need for self-monitoring. It is also important to assist students in overcoming self-defeating behaviors by building their confidence with high interest activities and promote success. Students should be given the opportunity to talk about what they have learned and encourage each other as a community. Students should become aware of their own thinking strategies and ask questions rather than just answering questions. This promotes a deeper level of thinking. It is critical to remind students that effective reading is an active process. Students should be taught that reading requires effort and concentration. Workbook exercises should be replaced with creative problem solving that include checklist, reading logs, and self-assessment surveys.  Vocabulary growth is an important part of metacognition and comprehension. Students should connect prior knowledge to words they already know. Students use self- assessments to promote metacognitive growth as well. As students take charge of their own academic growth, they become more aware of what they are learning. It is also important to talk about how thinking skills will provide success in their future careers. This proves value to real life application (Joseph, 2006). Next, it is important to learn how using these strategies plays an active role in reading comprehension.

              Research shows that students who were monitored used cloze reading showed comprehension monitoring to be significantly and consistently related to reading comprehension during upper elementary years (Comprehension monitoring, 2006). These students using the cloze reading strategy were able to able to fill in blanks from the reading they had been given.  Improvement was made for those students who applied metacognitive strategies that lead to effective comprehension monitoring. The development of metacognitive awareness requires a lot of experience with different strategies given by teachers. Strategies must be fine-tuned to work for students through effective instruction and reading efficiency. This can be done with decoding and bringing in different genes of materials to enrich lessons. In summary, the research provided shows how to implement metacognition strategies with teaching reading comprehension. Educators take an active role by explaining the importance of the metacognitive activity in class. Educators should remind students that reading is an active process that implies effort and concentration. As students understand this process it will help promote their self-reflective in their learning. Educators can use reciprocal reading and graphic organizers to emphasize metacognition in the classroom. This helps educators to scaffold instruction with students. Next, one can see how to apply these strategies in the classroom.

              研究表明,接受完形填空閱讀監測的學生,在小學高年級期間,理解監測與閱讀理解具有顯著且一致的相關性(理解監測,2006)。這些使用完形填空閱讀策略的學生能夠從他們被給予的閱讀材料中填空。運用元認知策略進行有效理解監控的學生成績有所提高。元認知意識的發展需要教師大量的經驗和不同的策略。策略必須通過有效的教學和閱讀效率來微調學生的工作。這可以通過解碼和引入不同基因的材料來豐富課程。綜上所述,本研究提供了如何在閱讀理解教學中實施元認知策略的建議。教育工作者通過解釋課堂上元認知活動的重要性來發揮積極作用。教育工作者應該提醒學生,閱讀是一個積極的過程,需要努力和專注。當學生了解這個過程時,這將有助于他們在學習中進行自我反思。教育工作者可以在課堂上使用交互閱讀和圖形組織者來強調元認知。這有助于教育工作者為學生提供指導。接下來,我們可以看到如何在課堂上應用這些策略。

              A typical day for an educator starts with lesson plans based on curricular requirements. As educators analyze material and prepare for the class, it is important to assess decisions that are made to see if students are learning to their fullest ability. Students who think self- reflectively and process material can master metacognition. As an educator one must plan, monitor, and evaluate the performance of students and their cognitive ability. Research shows that students who practice strategies during their upper elementary and middle school years develop effective strategies for learning. Students then are able to compensate for weakness in areas that they may struggle in. Modeling and discussions with students will promote self-reflective thinking. “Students need to understand that self-reflective thinking is a vital life skill, a strategic ability that extends beyond the classroom into their everyday lives”, (Joseph, 2006). Educators should teach so that learning goes beyond memorization and moves into the higher cognitive reams of analyzing and application.

              Conclusion結論

              Students should think about their thinking. In order for them to achieve this they must be taught skills that give them the ability to direct their own learning. Students who can self-regulate understand what metacognition is. It is essential to use research-based strategies to teach students how to think about thinking. “When readers spend time processing the content, their comprehension improves”, (Joseph, 2006). This cuts down on students’ frustration when learning as well as the need to a teacher to give one student constant attention. “Studies of adolescent learning behavior describe metacognitive awareness can be taught, resulting in students’ learning practical skills to use throughout their lives”, (Joseph, 2006). While educators are encouraged to use metacognition strategies to improve learning skills and comprehension in adolescents, more research is needed to investigate the topic.

              學生應該思考自己的想法。為了實現這一目標,他們必須學會指導自己學習的技能。能夠自我調節的學生了解什么是元認知。運用研究性策略來教學生如何思考思考是非常必要的?!爱斪x者花時間處理內容時,他們的理解能力會提高”,(Joseph, 2006)。這減少了學生在學習時的挫折感,也減少了老師對一個學生持續關注的需要?!皩η嗌倌陮W習行為的研究描述了元認知意識可以被教授,導致學生的學習實踐技能在他們的一生中使用”,(Joseph, 2006)。雖然教育工作者被鼓勵使用元認知策略來提高青少年的學習技能和理解能力,但還需要更多的研究來調查這一主題。

              留學生論文相關專業范文素材資料,盡在本網,可以隨時查閱參考。本站也提供多國留學生課程作業寫作指導服務,如有需要可咨詢本平臺。

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